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Publications & Standards

Read Vibrant’s publications, white papers and ASTM Standards to keep you up-to-date on the latest with PCRT.

Standard Guide for Nondestructive Examination of Metal Additively Manufactured Aerospace Parts After Build

This guide discusses the use of established and emerging nondestructive testing (NDT) procedures used to inspect metal parts made by additive manufacturing (AM). The guide focuses on parts that might be used in aerospace applications, produced by a variety of AM methods. The guide discusses NDE of parts after they have been fabricated with covered methods including computed tomography, eddy current testing , optical metrology, penetrant testing, process compensated resonance testing, radiographic testing, infrared thermography, and ultrasonic testing.

AM White Paper

This paper describes ways to apply Vibrant Process Compensated Resonance Testing (PCRT) to parts produced by Additive Manufacturing Technologies.

Nondestructive Evaluation of Additive Manufactured Parts Using Process Compensated Resonance Testing

Additive manufacturing (AM) introduces a host of new challenges for nondestructive evaluation. The effects of material state defects and variations on performance and NDE are still being understood. Legacy NDE methods are often confounded by complex geometries and as-built surface roughness common in AM components. Methods that can cope with these factors, like X-ray Computed Tomography, may be challenging to apply beyond small populations because of cost and time constraints. Process Compensated Resonance Testing (PCRT) is a volumetric inspection method that excites the resonance frequencies of a component with a swept sine input and analyzes the resonance response with advanced machine learning and statistical scoring tools. This work describes studies demonstrating PCRT methods for NDE, qualification, monitoring and control of AM processes. PCRT detection of structural defects introduced by build process deviations will be demonstrated. Follow-up characterization with [...]


  • U.S. Patent 10481104, 10718723 for Utilizing RI of in-service parts
  • U.S. Patent 9157788, 10067094 for Part evaluation system/method using both resonances and surface vibration data
  • U.S. Patent 8903675 for Acoustic system and method for NDT of a part through frequency sweeps
  • U.S. Patent 9228981 for Resonance Inspection-based surface defect system/method
  • U.S. Patent 9335300 for SAW mode-based surface defect method
  • U.S. Patent 9927403 for Resonance inspection sorting module array
  • U.S. Patent 10295510 for Part evaluation based upon system natural frequency
  • U.S. Patent 9074927 for Methods for non-destructively evaluating a joined component
  • U.S. Patent 9228980 for Non-destructive evaluation methods for aerospace components
  • U.S. Patent 10746704 for PCRT for process control

ASTM Standards

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